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SANSKRIT & TRANSLITERATION


The knowledge of Āyurveda has been maintained over thousands of years in the language of Sanskrit. Today, Traditional Āyurvedic Medicine (TAM) in India bases its professional education on vast compendia of Āyurvedic medical literature in Sanskrit. These works are studied and applied in clinical settings as standard practice.

Outside of India, learning Sanskrit for professional Āyurveda has been one of the major challenges and obstacles. Sanskrit's plays a key role in accessing the depth and complexity of classical Āyurvedic knowledge. It should always be a required component of professional education and practice for Traditional Āyurvedic Medicine (TAM).

ĀYU Council's recommendation for Sanskrit

  • Use transliterated Sanskrit with AYUT (Āyurvedic Universal Transliteration).
  • Devanāgarī reading and writing is optional for professional Āyurveda.
  • Utilize online resources and tools to access transliterated Āyurvedic medical texts with updated translations.

SANSKRIT

Sanskrit is one of the oldest documented languages of the Indo-European family.

It is spoken as it’s written and written as it’s spoken. In linguistics, this is called high phonemic orthography. Sanskrit uses Devanāgarī as its alphabet and script. The classical alphabet contains 52 syllables that represent unique sounds.

Reading and pronouncing Sanskrit is easier than many other languages, including English, once the Devanāgarī is memorized and can be recited proficiently. Pronunciation in Sanskrit follows strict rules, unlike English.

TRANSLITERATION

Proper transliteration allows each mark (or "letter") in Sanskrit to be represented accurately using Roman letters. This is called lossless transliteration because it converts each syllable to a single letter, or a unique combination of letters.

Several transliteration schemes are used in Āyurveda. ĀYU Council recommends AYUT (Āyurvedic Universal Transliteration) because it is the easiest to learn and read.

All modern transliteration schemes use diacritics, or diacritical marks, on certain Roman letters to correctly match them to their Devanāgarī equivalents. For example, the long "ā" in Āyurveda represents a different vowel from the short "a".

TRANSLATION

Proper translation expresses the meaning, intent and information of the original Sanskrit content in another language, such as English. This has probably been one of the biggest challenges in spreading accurate knowledge about Traditional Āyurvedic Medicine (TAM) outside of India where all professionals are proficient in Sanskrit.

Traditional Āyurvedic medical literature have been translated into many languages over centuries. English is one of the most recent. The quality of translations in English is generally insufficient to learn the full science of Traditional Āyurvedic Medicine (TAM).

English words simply do not exist for most Traditional Āyurvedic Medicine (TAM) concepts. This requires extensive written explanation to convey full context and meaning for accurate representation.

ĀYU Council's transliteration scheme for Sanskrit: AYUT

Āyurvedic Universal Transliteration

This is a modified format for lossless, Romanized transliteration of the Vedic Sanskrit alphabet for simplified reading and pronunciation in Roman script. It is based on IAST with adaptations from ISO 15919 and ITRANS.

Devanāgarī AYUT IAST ISO 15919 ITRANS
a a a a
आ or ा ā ā ā A/aa
इ or ि i i i i
ई or ी ī ī ī I/ii
उ or ु u u u u
ऊ or ू ū ū ū U/uu
ऋ or ृ RRi/R^i
ऋृ or ॄ r̥̄ RRI/R^I
ऌ or ॢ LLi/L^i
ऌृ l̥̄ LLI/L^I
ए or े e e ē e
ऐ or ै ai ai ai ai
ओ or ो o o ō o
औ or ौ au au au au
अं M/.n/.m
अः H
ka ka ka ka
kha kha kha kha
ga ga ga ga
gha gha gha gha
ṅa ṅa ṅa ~Na
cha ca ca cha
chha cha cha Cha
ja ja ja ja
jha jha jha jha
ña ña ña ~na
ṭa ṭa ṭa Ta
ṭha ṭha ṭha Tha
ḍa ḍa ḍa Da
ḍha ḍha ḍha Dha
ṇa ṇa ṇa Na
ta ta ta ta
tha tha tha tha
da da da da
dha dha dha dha
na na na na
pa pa pa pa
pha pha pha pha
ba ba ba ba
bha bha bha bha
ma ma ma ma
ya ya ya ya
ra ra ra ra
la la la la
va va va va
śha śa śa sha
ṣha ṣa ṣa Sha
sa sa sa sa
ha ha ha ha

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